The doctorate is the highest degree recognized at the national and international levels.

In France, the doctorate is a national diploma that can be obtained as part of initial and life-long training.

Doctoral education is training to research and through research. It includes personal research work complemented by accompanying training. It is also and above all a real professional experience of the research work, leading to the production of new knowledge and making it possible to develop new skills, most if not all of them transferable beyond the academic world.

During the preparation of his doctorate, the doctoral candidat carries out a research project as an early stage researcher in a host research unit and a doctoral school under the supervision of a qualified thesis director.

Its modalities, requirements and organisation within Doctoral Schools (DS) are defined by a Order (order of 25 May 2016) of the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research setting the national framework for training and procedures leading to the award of the national doctoral degree.